### Simple Amplifier Electronic Circuit Diagram

An electronic circuit is a closed path formed by the interconnection of electronic components through which an electric current can flow. The electronic circuits may be physically constructed using any number of methods. Breadboards, perfboards or stripboards are common for testing new designs. Mass-produced circuits are typically built using a printed circuit board (PCB) that is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components.

Electronic circuits can display highly complex behaviors, even though they are governed by the same laws of physics as simpler circuits.

Electronic circuits can usually be categorized as analog, discrete, or mixed-signal (a combination of analog and discrete) electronic circuits.

## Contents

• 1 Analog circuits
• 2 Discrete circuits
• 3 Mixed-signal circuits
• 4 Three Basic Parts

## Analog circuits

Analog electronic circuits are those in which signals may vary continuously with time to correspond to the information being represented. Electronic equipment like voltage amplifiers, power amplifiers, tuning circuits, radios, and televisions are largely analog (with the exception of their control sections, which may be digital, especially in modern units).

The basic units of analog circuits are passive (resistors, capacitors, inductors, and recently memristors) and active (independent power sources and dependent power sources). Components such as transistors may be represented by a model containing passive components and dependent sources. Another classification is to take impedance and independent sources and operational amplifier as basic electronic components; this allows us to model frequency dependent negative resistors, gyrators, negative impedance converters, and dependent sources as secondary electronic components. There are two main types of circuits: series and parallel. A string of Christmas lights is a good example of a series circuit: if one goes out, they all do. In a parallel circuit, each bulb is connected to the power source separately, so if one goes out the rest still remain shining.

## Discrete circuits

In digital electronic circuits, electric signals take an discrete values, which are not dependent upon time, to represent logical and numeric values. These values represent the information that is being processed. The transistor is one of the primary components used in discrete circuits, and combinations of these can be used to create logic gates. These logic gates may then be used in combination to create a desired output from an input.

Larger circuits may contain several complex components, such as FPGAs or Microprocessors. These along with several other components may be interconnected to create a large circuit that operates on large amount of data.

Examples of electronic equipment which use digital circuits include digital wristwatches, calculators, PDAs, and microprocessors.

## Mixed-signal circuits

Mixed-signal or hybrid circuits contain elements of both analog and digital circuits. Examples include comparators, timers, PLLs, ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), and DACs (digital-to-analog converters).

## Three Basic Parts

Energy source - converts nonelectric energy into energy. Examples are batteries and generators.

Output device - uses electric energy to do work. Examples are motor, lamp, or display.

Connection - allows electric current to flow. Examples are wire and cable.

### Capacitive Discharge Ignition Electronic Circuit

Most ignition systems used in cars are inductive ignition systems, which are solely relying on the electric inductance at the coil to produce high-voltage electricity to the spark plugs as the magnetic field breaks down when the current to the primary coil winding is disconnected (disruptive discharge). In a CDI system, a charging circuit charges a high voltage capacitor, and during the ignition point the system stops charging the capacitor, allowing the capacitor to discharge its output to the ignition coil before reaching the spark plug.

A typical CDI module consists of a small transformer, a charging circuit, a triggering circuit and a main capacitor. First, the system voltage is raised up to 400-600 V by a transformer inside the CDI module. Then, the electric current flows to the charging circuit and charges the capacitor. The rectifier inside the charging circuit prevents capacitor discharge before the ignition point. When the triggering circuit receives triggering signals, the triggering circuit stops the operation of the charging circuit, allowing the capacitor to discharge its output rapidly to the low inductance ignition coil, which increase the 400-600 V capacitor discharge to up to 40 kV at the secondary winding at the spark plug. When there's no triggering signal, the charging circuit is re-connected to charge back the capacitor.

The amount of energy the CDI system can store for the generation of a spark is dependent on the voltage and capacitance of the capacitors used, but usually it's around 50 mJ.

Most CDI modules are generally of two types:

• AC-CDI - The AC-CDI module obtains its electricity source solely from the alternating current produced by the alternator. The AC-CDI system is the most basic CDI system which is widely used in small engines.

Note that not all small engine ignition systems are CDI. Some older engines, and engines like older Briggs and Stratton use magneto ignition. The entire ignition system, coil and points, are under the magnetized flywheel.

Another sort of ignition system commonly used on small off-road motorcycles in the 1960s and 1970's was called Energy Transfer. A coil under the flywheel generated a strong DC current pulse as the flywheel magnet moved over it. This DC current flowed through a wire to an ignition coil mounted outside of the engine. The points sometimes were under the flywheel for two-stroke engines, and commonly on the camshaft for four-stroke engines. This system worked like all Kettering (points/coil) ignition systems... the opening points trigger the collapse of the magnetic field in the ignition coil, producing a high voltage pulse which flows through the spark plug wire to the spark plug.

If the engine was rotated while examining the wave-form output of the coil with an oscilloscope, it would appear to be AC. But you must consider that since the charge-time of the coil corresponds to much less than a full revoltion of the crank, the coil really 'sees' only DC current for charging the external ignition coil.

There exist some electronic ignition systems that are not CDI. Some systems use a transistor to switch the charging current to the coil off and on at the appropriate times. This eliminated the problem of burned and worn points, and provided a hotter spark because of the faster voltage rise and collapse time in the ignition coil.

• DC-CDI - The DC-CDI module is powered by the battery, and therefore an additional DC/AC inverter circuit is included in the CDI module to raise the 12 V DC to 400-600 V DC, making the CDI module slightly larger. However, vehicles that use DC-CDI systems have more precise ignition timing and the engine can be started more easily when cold.